The subject you’re referring to is the scientific method and the person who develops a mathematical model and tests it is typically called a scientist or a researcher. While Galileo Galilei is considered the “father of modern science” and made significant contributions to the field of astronomy, the scientific method and the development of mathematical models have evolved over time with the contributions of numerous individuals.
The scientific method is a systematic approach used by scientists to investigate natural phenomena, which involves making observations, formulating hypotheses, conducting experiments or gathering data, analyzing the results, and drawing conclusions. It is a fundamental process in scientific inquiry and helps to ensure that scientific knowledge is based on evidence and rigorous testing.
In terms of developing mathematical models, many scientists and researchers throughout history have employed mathematical principles to describe and understand various phenomena. For example, Sir Isaac Newton is renowned for developing mathematical models, particularly in the field of physics. His laws of motion and the law of universal gravitation were formulated mathematically and successfully tested through experimentation.
However, it’s important to note that scientific progress is a collective effort, and many scientists contribute to the development and testing of mathematical models in their respective fields. From physicists like Albert Einstein and Max Planck to biologists like Charles Darwin and Gregor Mendel, numerous individuals have made significant contributions to scientific knowledge by developing mathematical models and subjecting them to experimental verification.
In summary, the person who develops a mathematical model and tests it is typically a scientist or researcher, and the scientific method is the systematic approach used for such investigations. While Galileo Galilei is recognized as a key figure in the history of science and astronomy, the development and testing of mathematical models involve the contributions of many individuals across different scientific disciplines.